Magnetically Treated Water – Research


“Examination to Determine the Physical or Chemical Differences Between Untreated and Magnetically Treated Water”

Schmutzer, M.A., and Hull, G.W.

The UNITED STATES TESTING CENTER INC., performed a test to determine the effectiveness of magnetic water treatment in preventing boiler scale build-up. Upon subjection of the residual salts from both the treated and nontreated samples to x-ray distraction examination, a distinctive difference in the crystalline structure of the deposited residues was noted. The two samples were found to have the same chemical constituents but the x-ray distraction analysis indicates that the dominant crystal species in the untreated sample is calcium sulfate and calcium silicate, while in the treated sample the dominate species is a calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate (non corrosive elements). The samples are therefore physically different.
“Magnetic Treatment of Water” by Hibben, Stuart G.

The Advanced Research Agency of the Department of Defense sponsored research in magnetic treatment of water reporting that the fact generally agreed upon is that a magnetic field reduces the kinetics of crystallization processes and the freedom of movement of charged particles. This limitation of the motion of particles in the field results in an increase in the number of collisions and the formation of crystallization centers. Magnetic treatment is effective if the liquid is passed through the flux of a magnet having a sufficiently field and magnetic gradient, providing that the temperature of the liquid is not too high.
“Comparing Corrosion Rates of Steel Corrosion Inhibitors” by Kuivinen, David E., . Lewis Research Center, Cleveland.

NASA  (The National Aeronautics and Space Administration),  tested magnetically treated water against chemically treated water for corrosion rates of steel corrosion coupons placed in the two water systems. Reported results were excellent with corrosion rates of 1 to 50 mils per year using chemical inhibitors, with 4 mils per year considered to be acceptable, while corrosion rates of 0.0 mils per year were recorded for magnetic treatment of the water.
“Magnetic Treatment of Mineral Fuels” From The Institute of Mineral Fuels of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Dr. V.I. Klassen reports that no one argues about the effectiveness of magnetic treatment of water. In the Soviet Union the use of magnetic treatment of water is used extensively and with tremendous economic effect. These practitioners are making extensive use of magnetic treatment but are in serious need of scientific assistance. Marked reduction of scale formation in steam boilers has been verified in practice and confirmed in laboratories but the theory, which explains the nature of the process is not clearly understood.  Tekhnika Molodeshi, Vol. 10 pg. 22.  Fedotkin, L.M., Engergetika I Electrifkasia, Vol. 5, pg. 42

” Operations of the Magnetic Treatment of Water Used for the Mixing of Cement Concentrates”, Grashko, I.M., Belova, L.A., and Lishanskii, B.A., , Izv. Vyyssh. Zavedi Stroit Arkhit, No. 3.

“Electrochemical Studies of Cement Suspensions in Magnetically Treated Water”, L. Tlazovskiyi, V.A. and Analiua, S.A.,  Unobtainable Russian Journal Article.

In the setting of cement, magnetic treatment does not change the processes but stimulates and intensifies these processes quantively (specifically the initial steps of the crystallization process and the character of nucleation). For example a magnetic field produces larger numbers of crystals, shortens the induction period of crystallization and increases the number of crystals per unit volume of cement suspension.
Several thousand magnetic water conditioners are now rendering great service in buildings all sizes, from private homes to hospitals, schools, military buildings, etc. These units will protect the whole circuit of cold and hot water as well as sanitary installations against scale formation and corrosion when placed where the water main enters the premises. It is remarkable to note that algae, such as normally grow on coolers in the open air and in swimming pools, die rapidly under the effects of the magnetic treatment.
Vermelren, T., Corrosion Technology (Belgium).
“It may sound rather surprising that water can be purified by magnetic treatment but the fact is unquestionable. The answer as to why a magnetic field affects the properties of waste has not yet been found; it can only be expected when further research has elucidated the properties of the water molecule”.
Belova, V., Ph.D., Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Soviet Science Review (USSR).
“Based upon analyses of existing technical literature on the magnetic treatment of water and its ability to alter water properties, there are many basic areas where the utilization of this method has great practical merit, such as elimination of scale; control of encrustation; reduction of salt deposits; intensification of coagulation and crystallization; improving bacterial function of disinfectants; acceleration of reagent diffusion; increasing the efficiency of ion-exchange resin; removal of fine particles in the purification or recycling of waste water; extraction of valuable metals from; acceleration of the solidification of cements, increasing the density and strength of casting molds; etc.”

Stevoich, V.A., Liebhold, K., Hibben, S.G., Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

” The Control of Scale and Corrosion in Water Systems Using Magnetic Fields”, Raisen, E., PhD., . Paper #117, CORROSION, from “Magnetic Water Treatment” by Quinn

It was concluded that the magnetic unit used in these tests was very effective in controlling scale and corrosion in water systems, in such diverse applications as a large air conditioning condenser, syrup evaporators in a sugar mill, cooling exchangers in a large chemical processing plant in a boiler and a steam generator. Significant savings in time, cost and equipment were effected in all cases.

“Corrosion Control”,  A study of the influence of magnetics on corrosion control showed that magnetic treatment inhibits the rate of corrosion.  Reimers, R.S., de Kernior, P.S., Culiepier, V.C., Tulane University
” Laboratory Studies Involving Magnetic Water Treatment Devices”, Bush, K.W., Busch M.A.., Parker, D.H., Darling, R.E., McAtee, J.L., Jr., . Paper #251, CORROSIONS ’85.

This work has shown that voltages and currents reproduced when conducting solutions are made to flow through a magnetic treatment device in which the magnetic field is orthogonal to the fluid flow. Although many earlier papers dealing with Magnetic Water Treatment Devices have discussed the theory of magnetohydrodynamic voltage generation, none has ever demonstrated that this voltage could be measured and none has considered what the consequences of the induced voltage and concomitant current might be for scale control.

“Magnetic Treatment of Water”, Advanced Research Agency of the Department of Defense, Hibben, Stuart G.,

The Advance Research Agency of the Department of Defense sponsored research in magnetic treatment of water reporting that the fact generally agreed upon is that a magnetic field reduces the kinetics of crystallization processes and the freedom of movement of charged particles. This limitation of the motion of particles in the field results in an increase in the number of collisions and the formation of crystallization centers. Magnetic treatment is effective if the liquid is passed through the flux of a magnet having a sufficiently field and magnetic gradient, providing that the temperature of the liquid is not too high.
“Comparing Corrosion Rates of Steel Corrosion Inhibitors”. Lewis Research Center, Cleveland., National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Kuivinen, David E.,

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, tested magnetically treated water against chemically treated water for corrosion rates of steel corrosion coupons placed in the two water systems. Reported results were excellent with corrosion rates of 1 to 50 mils per year using chemical inhibitors, with 4 mils per year considered to be acceptable, while corrosion rates of 0.0 mils per year were recorded for the magnetic treatment.
“Mixing of Cement Concentrates using Magnetic Treatment of Water”, Grashko, I.M., Belova, L.A., and Lishanskii, B.A., , Izv. Vyyssh. Zavedi Stroit Arkhit, No. 3.

In addition, magnetic treatment does not change the processes in the setting of cement, but stimulates and intensifies these processes quantively (specifically the initial steps of the crystallization process and the character of nucleation). For example a magnetic field produces larger numbers of crystals, shortens the induction period of crystallization and increases the number of crystals per unit volume of cement suspension.
L. Tlazovskiyi, V.A. and Analiua, S.A., :Electrochemical Studies of Cement Suspensions in Magnetically Treated Water, Unobtainable Russian Journal Article.
Scale Reduction From The Institute of Mineral Fuels of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Dr. V.I. Klassen reports that no one argues about the effectiveness of magnetic treatment of water. In the Soviet Union the use of magnetic treatment of water is used extensively and with tremendous economic effect. These practitioners are making extensive use of magnetic treatment but are in serious need of scientific assistance. Marked reduction of scale formation in steam boilers has been verified in practice and confirmed in laboratories but the theory, which explains the nature of the process is not clearly understood.

Anon, Tekhnika Molodeshi, Vol. 10 pg. 22.

Fedotkin, L.M., Engergetika I Electrifkasia, Vol. 5, pg. 42

Carleton University, Ottawa Canada, Dr. Misheck G. Mwaba and Dr. Junjie Gu, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace engineering.
Laboratory Studies Involving Magnetic Water Treatment Devices. Paper #251, CORROSIONS ’85, Bush, K.W., Busch M.A.., Parker, D.H., Darling, R.E., McAtee, J.L., Jr., .

“Despite adverse evaluation by some water technology experts and inconsistent performance in field tests, a variety of magnetic water treatment devices (MTDS) employing permanent magnets continues to be promoted for the prevention of scale and other deposits in water using systems. The studies reported here by the Baylor Water Research Group are unique. For the first time, researchers in an American laboratory have been able to conclusively demonstrate that something fundamental does in fact happen when water is circulated not just through a magnetic field, but through an actual magnetic water treatment device. In summary, the potential benefits which could be derived from a non-chemical method of water conditioning of this type include reduced energy requirements, water conservation, reduction or elimination of chemical feed and control requirements and reduced pollution.”
“Voltages Generated in Liquids Exposed to Magnetic Fields”, Reimers, R.S., de Kernior, P.S., Culiepier, V.C., Tulane University

This work has shown that voltages and currents reproduced when conducting solutions are made to flow through a magnetic treatment device in which the magnetic field is orthogonal to the fluid flow. Although many earlier papers dealing with Magnetic Water Treatment Devices have discussed the theory of magnetohydrodynamic voltage generation, none has ever demonstrated that this voltage could be measured and none has considered what the consequences of the induced voltage and concomitant current might be for scale control.
“Corrosion Rate Inhibited by Magnetic Water Treatment” – Quinn  A study of the influence of magnetics on corrosion control showed that magnetic treatment inhibits the rate of corrosion.
“The Control of Scale and Corrosion in Water Systems Using Magnetic Fields”, Raisen, E., PhD., . Paper #117, CORROSION.

“It was concluded that the magnetic unit used in these tests was very effective in controlling scale and corrosion in water systems, in such diverse applications as a large air conditioning condenser, syrup evaporators in a sugar mill, cooling exchangers in a large chemical processing plant in a boiler and a steam generator. Significant savings in time, cost and equipment were effected in all cases.”
“Alteration of Water Properties by Magnetic Fields”, Stevoich, V.A., Liebhold, K., Hibben, S.G., Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Based upon analyses of existing technical literature on the magnetic treatment of water and its ability to alter water properties, there are many basic areas where the utilization of this method has great practical merit, such as elimination of scale; control of encrustation; reduction of salt deposits; intensification of coagulation and crystallization; improving bacterial function of disinfectants; acceleration of reagent diffusion; increasing the efficiency of ion-exchange resin; removal of fine particles in the purification or recycling of waste water; extraction of valuable metals from; acceleration of the solidification of cements, increasing the density and strength of casting molds; etc
“Purification of Water by Magnetic Treatment”, Belova, V., Ph.D., Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences, USSR, Soviet Science Review (USSR).  It may sound rather surprising that water can be purified by magnetic treatment but the fact is unquestionable. The answer as to why a magnetic field affects the properties of waste has not yet been found; it can only be expected when further research has elucidated the properties of the water molecule.
“Elimination of Scale and Algae by Magnetic Treatment”, Vermelren, T., Corrosion Technology (Belgium)  Several thousand magnetic water conditioners are now rendering great service in buildings all sizes, from private homes to hospitals, schools, military buildings, etc. These units will protect the whole circuit of cold and hot water as well as sanitary installations against scale formation and corrosion when placed where the water main enters the premises. It is remarkable to note that algae, such as normally grow on coolers in the open air and in swimming pools, die rapidly under the effects of the magnetic treatment.
“Examination to Determine the Physical or Chemical Differences Between Untreated and Magnetically Treated Water”, United States Testing Center Inc. Schmutzer, M.A., and Hull, G.W.,.

The UNITED STATES TESTING COMPANY, INC., performed a test to determine the effectiveness of magnetic water treatment in preventing boiler scale build-up. Upon subjection of the residual salts from both the treated and nontreated samples to x-ray distraction examination, a distinctive difference in the crystalline structure of the deposited residues was noted. The two samples were found to have the same chemical constituents but the x-ray distraction analysis indicates that the dominant crystal species in the untreated sample is calcium sulfate and calcium silicate, while in the treated sample the dominate species is a calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate (non corrosive elements). The samples are therefore physically different.
LABORATORY TEST RESULTS AND LINKS:

* CENTRE ANALYTICAL LABORATORIES, INC.
* TODD GIDDINGS AND ASSOCIATES, INC.
* PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
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You can see more information and prices on our website at http://www.biophysica.com/water.html and at
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Top Pool Sites, a useful informational directory of pool products at http://www.toppoolsites.com/cleanerdolphinpool/

Antiscale magnetic treatment What is magnetic water treatment? From Cranfield University, School of Water Sciences at http://www.cranfield.ac.uk/sims/water/magnets.htm

Publications from Cranfield University at http://www.cranfield.ac.uk/sims/water/scale/publications.htm

Scaling and Corrosion in Water and Wastewater Systems (Selected Proceedings of the IWA International Specialised Conference on Scaling and Corrosion in Water and Wastewater Systems, held in Cranfield, UK, 25-27 March 2003) at http://www.iwaponline.com/wst/04902/02/default.htm

Ten Fact Sheets at http://www.britishwater.co.uk/consumer/Factsheet_Index/factsheet_index.html#index

References on Magnetic Water Treatment:

1. A-Barrett R and Parsons S A, (1998). The influence of magnetic fields on calcium carbonate precipitation. Water Research, 32, 609-612
2. A-Barrett R, Parsons S A, Hillis P and Coetzee P P. The Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate, 2A, 7, WISA ’98, Cape Town, May, 1998, 10pp.
3. A-Barrett R, Parsons S A, and Hillis P (1999). A review of some of the analytical methods used to assess the influence of magnetic treatment. MAG3 (ISBN 1 86194 010 6). Cranfield, April 1999, 23pp
4. Alleman, J. 1985. Quantitative Assessment of the Effectiveness of Permanent Magnet Water Conditioning Devices. Purdue University. Sponsored by and protocol by Water Quality Association.
5. American Petroleum Institute. 1985. Evaluation of the Principles of Magnetic Water Treatment, Publication 960.
6. Baker, J.S., and S.J. Judd. 1996. “Magnetic Amelioration of Scale Formation.” Water Research, 30(2):247-260.
7. Baker, J S. and Parsons, S A. (1996). Anti-scale Magnetic Treatment, Water and Waste Treatment, 39, 36-38.
8. Baker J S, Judd S J and Parsons S A, (1997). Antiscale magnetic pretreatment of RO feedwater. Desalination, 10 (1), 151-166.
9. Benson, R.F., B.B. Martin, and D.F. Martin. 1994. “Management of Scale Deposits by Diamagnetism. A Working Hypothesis.” Journal Environmental Science and Health, A29(8):1553-1564.
10. Burgess J E, Judd S J and Parsons S A. (2000) Magnetically-enhanced disinfection of swimming pool waters. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (Part B). 78, 213 – 218.
11. Busch, K. W., M. A. Busch, D. H. Parker, R. E. Darling, and J. L. McAtee, Jr. 1986. “Studies of a Water Treatment Device That Uses Magnetic Fields,” In Proceedings Corrosion/85, Boston MA.
12. Dirks, J.A., and L.E. Wrench. 1993. “Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) Software System.” PNL-SA-22780. In Proceedings of the Energy and Environmental Congress. Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 4-5, 1993.
13. Fryer, L. 1995. “Magnetic Water Treatment A Coming Attraction?” E-Source, TU-95-7
14. Gotham, J. G. Johnson, D.I. Wilson, S.A. Parsons and J.S. Baker (1997) Mitigation of Heat Exchanger Scaling by Magnetic Treatment Devices, 5th National UK Heat Transfer Conference, Imperial College, London, publ. IChemE, September ’97.
15. Gruber and Carda. 1981. Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Type Water Treatment Devices. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. Sponsored by and protocol by Water Quality Association.
16. Hibben, S.G. 1973. Magnetic Treatment of Water. Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense.
17. Ifill, A S, Baker, J S. and Judd, S. J. (1996). Magnetic treatment of simulated swimming pool waters. Trans. IChemE, (Part B), 74, 120 – 123.
18. Marth, R.A. 1997. A Scientific Definition of the Magnetic Treatment of Water: Its Subsequent Use in Preventing Scale Formation and Removing Scale. Research Conducted for Descal-A-Matic Corporation.
19. Parsons S A. (1997). Antiscale Magnetic Treatment. MAG2, Cranfield, April 1997, 24pp.
20. Parsons S A. (1999). Overview of recent magnetic treatment research at Cranfield University. MAG3 (ISBN 1 86194 010 6). Cranfield, April 1999, 18pp
21. Parsons S A. (2000). Advances in Antiscale Magnetic Treatment Research. In Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium on New Magneto-Science. Tokyo.
22. Parsons, S.A., Bao-Lung Wang, S.J. Judd, and T. Stephenson. 1997. “Magnetic Treatment of Calcium Carbonate Scale — Effect of pH Control.” Water Research, 31(2): 339-342.
23. Parsons S A, Wang B L, Udol S, Judd S J and Stephenson T, (1997). Magnetically augmented water treatment. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (Part B), 74, 98-106.
24. Quinn, C.J., T.C. Molden, and C.W. Sanderson. 1996. “Nonchemical Approach to Hard Water Scale, Corrosion and White Rust Control.” In Proceedings Iron and Steel Engineer, Chicago IL, September 30, 1996.
25. Reimers, R.S., P. S. DeKernion, and D. B. Leftwich. 1979. “Sonics and Electrostatics – An Innovative Approach to Water and Waste Treatment.” In Proceedings Water Reuse Symposium, Volume 2. American Water Works Research Association Research Evaluation, Denver, CO.
26. Rubin, A.J. 1973. To Determine if Magnetic Water Treatment is Effective in Preventing Scale. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
27. Schmutzer, M. A., and G. W. Hull. 1969. Examination to Determine the Physical or Chemical Differences Between Untreated and Magnetically Treated Water. United States Testing Center, Inc. Hoboken, NJ.
28. Simpson. L. G. 1980. “Control Scale and Save Energy.” The Coast Guard Engineer’s Digest, Volume 20, Number 205, pp. 32-35.
29. Starmer J E, Parsons S A and Judd S J (1998). Magnetically-Enhanced Chemical Disinfection. IChemE Research Event, Newcastle, April 1998. CD-Rom 8pp

Further water magnetization references from http://members.aol.com/JBainSI/References.htm

Aggregation and growth processes in thin films of magnetic fluid.
Cernak, J.; Macko, P.; Kasparkova, M. 1991 – Journal of Physics [ISSN 0022-3727], v24 p1609-15.
An effective correction to the theoretical curve of magnetobirefringence of magnetic fluid.
Yingtian Pan.; Xiande Liu.; Chongwu Du. 1992 – Journal of Applied Physics [ISSN 0021-8979], v71 p3937-9.
Antiscale magnetic pretreatment of reverse osmosis feedwater.
Baker, J.S.; Judd, S.J.; and Parsons, S.A. 1997 – Desalination [ISSN 0011-9164], v110 n1-2 p151-165.
Anti-scale Magnetic Treatment
Baker, J S. and Parsons, S A. (1996). , Water and Waste Treatment, 39, 36-38.
Application of magnetic separations in applied microbiology.
Safarik, I.; Safarikova, M.; Forsythe, S.J. 1995 – Journal of Applied Bacteriology [ISSN 0021-8847], v78 n6 p575-585.
Application-oriented characterization of Sm2Co,Fe,Cu,Zr17 permanent magnets.
Liu, Sam.; Hoffman, Eugene P. 1996 – 1996 IEEE International Magnetics Conference [ISSN 0018-9464], v32 n5 pt2 p5091-5093.
Art of scale reduction.
Marshutz, Scott. 1996 – Reeves Journal [ISSN 0048-7066], v76 n2 p3.
Attractions of magnetic wastewater treatment.
Annonymous. 1988 – Water Quality International [ISSN ????], v76 n2 p3.
Basic Study on Micromechanical System Using the Magnetic Fluid.
Kim, D.-W.; Shimooka, T.; Yuhta, T. 1995 – Seimitsu Kogakkai shi (Journal of the Japan Society of Precision Engineering) [ISSN 0912-0289], v61 n1 p112.
Benard convection in a non-linear magnetic fluid under the influence of a non-vertical magnetic field.
Abdullah, A. A.; Lindsay, K. A. 1991 – Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics [ISSN 0935-1175], v3 n1 p13-26.
Biological and biomedical aspects of magnetic fluid technology.
Roath, S. 1993 – Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v122 n1-3 p329.
Chaos: New trend magnetic fluid research.
Cebers, A. 1993 – Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v122 n1-3 p281.
Control Scale and Save Energy
Simpson. L. G. 1980. “.” The Coast Guard Engineer’s Digest, Volume 20, Number 205, pp. 32-35.
Convection in a non-uniformly stratified fluid permeated by a non-uniform magnetic field.
D. R.; Richardson, L. 1991 – Geophysical Journal International [ISSN 0956-540X], v104 n1 p203-212.
Deformation and Destruction of Aggregates in a Magnetic Fluid.
Martynov, S. I. 1990 – Magnetohydrodynamics [ISSN 0024-998X], v26 n2 p167.
Dispersity of Nickel and Its Interaction with Surfactant in Magnetic Fluid.
Vorobyova, S. A.; Lesnikovich, A. I.; Levchik, G. F.; Levchik, S. V.
1995 – International Riga Conference on Magnetohydrodynamics, 14th [Latvian Academy of Science. Institute of Physics. Jurmala, Latvia], p206-207.
Effect of high magnetic fields on the reverse electron transfer process in an a-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of phenothiazine-viologen chain-linked compound
Fujiwara, Y.; Aoki, T.; Yoda, K.; Hong, C.; Mukai, M.; Haino, T.; Fukazawa, Y.; Tanimoto, Y.; Yonemura, H.; Matsuo, T.; and Okazaki, M. 1996 – Chemical Physics Letters [ISSN 0009-2614], v256 n3-4 p361-367.
Effect of irrigation with magnetically treated water on the translocation of minerals in the soil.
Noran, Rami.; Shani, Uri.; Lin, Israel. 1996 – MAGN ELECTR SEP [ISSN 1055-6915], v7 n2 p109-122.
Effect of magnetic field on particle aggregation of a magnetic fluid in a pipe flow.
Shimada, K.; Iwabuchi, M.; Kamiyama, S.; Sato, A. 1997 – Experimental Heat Transfer Fluid Mechanics and Thremodynamics – World Conference – 1997 [ISBN 8846700147], v3 p1609-1614.
Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate
A-Barrett R, Parsons S A, Hillis P and Coetzee P P., WISA ’98, Cape Town, May, 1998.
Effect of magnetic treatment on Gulf seawater.
Al-Qahtani, Haitham. 1996 – Desalination [ISSN 0011-9164], v107 n1 p75-81.
Effect of Vertical Magnetic Field on the Fluid Flow of Silicon Melt and on the Concentration Profile of Oxygen in the Czochralski System.
Yi, K.-W.; Watanabe, M.; Kakimoto, K.; Eguchi, M. 1994 – Extended Abstracts – Electrochemical Society [ISBN 1566770815], v1 p429-430.
Effective correction to the theoretical curve of magnetobirefringence of magnetic fluid.
Yingtian, Pan; Xiande, Liu; Chongwu, Du; Zaiguang, Li. 1992 – Journal of Applied Physics [ISSN 0021-8979], v71 n8 p3937-3939.
Effectiveness of a magnetized water oral irrigator (Hydro Floss) on plaque, calculus and gingival health.
Johnson KE; Sanders JJ; Gellin RG; Palesch YY 1998 J Clin Periodontol, 1998 Apr, 25:4, 316-21
Effects of anti-scale apparatus on hard water [Orignial Title: Les effects d’un appareil magnetique “anti-tartre” sur les eaux incrustantes].
Ferreux, M.; Remy, F.; Vidonne, A. 1991 – Technical Scientific Methods [ISSN ????], v86 n4 p201-203.
Effects of the magnetic field on a non-Newtonian conducting fluid past a stretching plate.
Helmy, K. A. 1994 – Canadian Journal of Physics [ISSN 0008-4204], v72 n5/6 p290.
Effects of magnetic field on water investigated with fluorescent probes.
Higashitani, K., Oshitani, J. and Ohmura, N. 1996 – Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects [ISSN 0927-7757], v109 p167-173.
Equilibrium of a Drop of a Magnetic Fluid in the Field of a Rectangular Magnet.
Raikher, Yu. L.; Sosnin, P. A.; Korovin, V. M.; Pshenichnikov, A. F. 1993 – Magnetohydrodynamics [ISSN 0024-998X], v28 n4 p340-345.
Estimation of the yield stress of a magnetic fluid from flow curves.
Matsuno, Y.; Itoh, J. 1995 – Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v149 n1/2 p22-25.
Evaluation of the Principles of Magnetic Water Treatment,
American Petroleum Institute. 1985.  Publication 960.
Examination to Determine the Physical or Chemical Differences Between Untreated and Magnetically Treated Water
Schmutzer, M. A., and G. W. Hull.
1969. . United States Testing Center, Inc. Hoboken, NJ.
Experimental evaluation of efficiency of magnetic anti-scale device [Original Title: Evaluation experimentale de l’efficacite d’un appareil antitartre magnetique].
Crolet, J.-L.; Ledion, J. 1988 – Technical Scientific Methods [ISSN ????], v83 n9 p435-442.
Experimental Study of the Flux Control Characteristics of a Magnetic Fluid Controlled by a Parallel or Orthogonal Magnetic Field.
Oka, Hideo. 1993 – Electrical Engineering in Japan [ISSN 0424-7760], v113 n2 p65-79.
Experimental Study of the Transition in a Nonstabilized Flow of a Conductive Fluid in a Tube Placed in the Longitudinal Magnetic Field.
Krasil’nikov, E. Y.; Atamuratov, A. K.; Baushev, B. N.; Kashulin, A. P. 1994 – [ISSN 1063-7753], v39 n5 p381.
Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) Software System
Dirks, J.A., and L.E. Wrench. 1993.PNL-SA-22780. In Proceedings of the Energy and Environmental Congress. Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 4-5
Fundamental theory for hydrodynamics of magnetic fluid.
Ido, Y.; Tanahashi, T.; Kiya, M. 1992 – International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics in Materials [ISSN 0925-2096], v3 n3 p183-192.
Growing attraction of magnetic treatment.
Spear, M. 1992 – Process Engineering [ISSN 0370-1859], v73 n5 p143-144.
High gradient magnetic filtration for waste water treatment.
Van Velsen, Lood F.-M.; Nymegen, Smit; Boersma, Rint. 1991 – Mines Carrieres Technical 1991 [ISSN 0999-5714], p67.
How to study antiscale process (Original Title: Les methodologies d’etudes des procedes antitartre).
Rosset, R. 1993 – Technical Scientific Methods [ISSN 0299-7258], v88 n11 p563-569.
Hydrodynamic Resistance of Pipelines with a Magnetic Fluid Coating.
Krakov, M. S.; Maskalik, E. S.; Medvedev, V. F. 1990 – Fluid Dynamics [ISSN 0015-4628], v24 n5 p715.
Hydrostatics and oscillatory flows of magnetic fluid under a nonuniform magnetic field.
Shliomis, Mark I; Kamiyama, Shinichi. 1995 – Physics of Fluids [ISSN 1070-6631], v7 n10 p24-28.
Inference of geometrical analogy between magnetic domain alignment in fabricated ferromagnets and fluid flow.
Tay, C. Y. 1993 – Journal of Materials Science [ISSN 0022-2461], v28 n9 p2405.
Influence of magnetic fields on calcium carbonate precipitation
A-Barrett R and Parsons S A, (1998). Water. Res.,32, 609-612 .
Interaction of Superparamagnetic and Non-superparamagnetic Particles in Magnetic Fluid.
Jeyadevan, B; Nakatsuka, K. 1995 – Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v149 n1-2 p60.
Interfacial phenomena of magnetic fluid in moving container.
Sudo, Seiichi.; Ohaba, Motoyoshi.; Katagiri, Kazunari.; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki. 1997 – Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu [ISSN 0387-5016], v63 n606 p424-430.
Laboratory studies on magnetic water treatment and their relationship to a possible mechanism for scale reduction.
Busch, K.W.; Busch, M.A. 1997 – Desalination [ISSN 0011-9164], v109 n2 p131-148.
Magnetic amelioration of scale formation.
Baker, J.S. and Judd, S.J. 1996 – Water Research [ISSN 0043-1354], v30 n2 p247-260.
Magnetic Fluid Dynamics of Blood Flow.
Haik, Y.; Ching Jen Chen; Pai, V. 1996 – Engineering Mechanics – Conference [ISBN 0784401721], v1 p458-461.
Magnetic fluid flow in a two-dimensional channel.
Matsuno, Y.; Araki, K.; Yamamoto, H. 1993 – Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials [ISSN 0304-8853], v122 n1-3 p204.
Magnetic microparticles in water treatment.
Kolarik, L.O.; Anderson, N.J.; Bolto, B.A.; Chin, C.T.; Priestley, A.J. 1994 – Water Supply [ISSN 0735-1917], v12 n3-4 p253-262.
Magnetic particle technology: Desalination and water reuse applications.
Bolto, B.A. 1996 – Desalination [ISSN 0011-9164], v106 n1-3 p137-143.
Magnetic properties of laboratory synthesized magnetic fluid and their temperature dependence.
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Magnetic treatment of calcium carbonate scale — effect of pH control.
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A stroke for swimmers
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Magnetised water is no mystery.
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Experimental Evidence for Effects of Magnetic Fields on Moving Water, 1984 Institute of Electric and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), Dr. Klaus J. Kronenberg,  Conference  Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. Mag-21, No. 5, September 1985, pages 2059-2061

Magnetic water treatment demystified. (paper courtesy of Teldon of Canada Ltd.) Kronenberg, Klaus J.

Magnetised: What makes treating water with magnets so alluring Aqua Magazine, August 1993, pp. 20-24 Kronenberg, Klaus J.

Magnetised II: More alluring facts about treating water with magnets. Aqua Magazine, September 1993, 20-23 Kronenberg, Klaus J.

The analysis of water using intrinsic data fields. A paper presented to the Institute for Advanced Water Sciences Research, October 1997 Narvaez, Thomas.

The ultrasonic detection of structural changes in water after endogenous bioelectromagnetic field treatment. Second Annual Advanced Water Sciences Symposium, Dallas, Texas. October 4-6, 1996(paper courtesy of Hippocampus Institute, Budapest, Hungary) Yakovkin, V, et al.

Towards a biophysics of homeopathy. (paper courtesy of Hippocampus Institute, Budapest, Hungary), Zhalko-Tytarenko, Olga, et al. T

Endogenous electromagnetic field influence on the free energy of hydrogen bond formation in water. 2nd Advanced Water Sciences Symposium, Dallas, Texas, October 4-6, 1996. Proceedings, pp. 23-27 Zhalko-Tytarenko, Olga, et al.
Effect of oral irrigation with a magnetic water treatment device on plaque and calculus.
Watt DL, Rosenfelder C, Sutton CD 1993 J Clin Periodontol  May;20(5):314-7

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