Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on Neurophysiology, Cognitive Development, and Health in College Students – Project & Bibliography


The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on student health and development—intellectual, social, emotional, and academic. The site is American University in Washington, D.C., with participation from surrounding college campuses, including Georgetown University, George Washington University, Howard University, the Corcoran College of Art + Design.

BACKGROUND
Previous pilot studies have found that the Transcendental Meditation program reduces classroom stress and other psychological disorders; improves physical and mental health, including the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure and negative health behaviors; decreases learning disorders such as ADHD; enhances intellectual development and academic achievement; and develops full brain potential. The present project will build on these earlier findings through a large-scale research and demonstration protocol that will evaluate the effects of TM practice on brain, behavior, and health simultaneously.
PROJECT OVERVIEW
Three hundred undergraduate and graduate students from American University and surrounding college campuses will learn the Transcendental Meditation program during the two-year project. The research will evaluate the health and educational outcomes of TM practice in these students, with additional focus on students with learning disorders.
OUTCOME ASSESSMENT
Over the course of the study, the 300 participating students will be measured at baseline and again after six months of practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Approximately half the students will learn the Transcendental Meditation technique during the initial semester of the project (Spring 2006), with the other half serving as wait-listed controls during this time period. The control group will then learn the Transcendental Meditation program at the start of the next semester, with follow-up for approximately one year.
Standard measures for all students in the study will include blood pressure, health behaviors (smoking, alcohol, and substance usage), psychological stress, emotional intelligence, practical intelligence, and academic achievement.
In addition, three subgroups of students (50–60 per subgroup) will be evaluated, respectively, for 1) neurophysiological integration, using EEG brainwave coherence measures, 2) cognitive intelligence, and 3) attention/inattention, using the Connors Continuous Performance Test and self-rating scale, for those students with a recent diagnosis of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity.
Health Measures
Blood Pressure: Students’ blood pressure at each assessment will be measured three times with a mercury sphygmomanometer after five minutes resting without practicing any formal relaxation technique. Three readings will be taken one minute apart. The latter two will be averaged and taken as the clinic mean for that visit.
Health Behaviors: Smoking, alcohol, and other substance use will be assessed by standard questionnaires used in earlier studies. For alcohol, subjects will be queried by the Weekly drinking Recall (WR) method as to the number of drinks of alcohol consumed during the week prior to completing the questionnaire: 0, 1–4, 5–10, 11–20, and >20 drinks per week. Smoking will be assessed by the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and other substance usage by the number of times per week students engaged in nonprescribed drug use.
General Health Questionnaire: The Profile of Mood States will be used to assess depression and psychological stress, including anger, tension, and other factors related to emotional and physical health.
Student Development
Emotional Intelligence: The Constructive Thinking Inventory will be used to assess emotional intelligence and general coping skills.
Neurophysiological Integration
EEG Coherence: Factors from the Brain Integration Report Card, such as global coherence and power, will be used to assess student neurophysiological integration, which has been associated with development of higher states of consciousness.
Cognitive Intelligence
The Ravens Progressive Matrices test will be used to assess nonverbal cognitive intelligence, or IQ, which has been found to plateau in the 20s.
Attention Deficit Disorder
The Connors Continuous Performance test will be used to assess inattention and impulsivity in a subgroup of ADD students with or without hyperactivity. In addition, students will also fill out a self-rating scale that measures behaviors related to ADHD.
Academic Performance
With appropriate permissions, grade-point average will be collected for all student participants and pre–post intervention changes analyzed.
Link to the full article here  http://www.au-tm-study.org/
Senior Investigators
American University:
David Haaga, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
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Research studies on the Transcendental Meditation technique have been published in more than 100 scientific journals. The bibliography below lists samples from each of the major categories. This is too further assist you other researchers out there.

Brain Functioning

Travis, F., Haaga, D.H., Hagelin, J., Tanner, M., Nidich, S., Gaylord-King, C., Grosswald, S., Rainforth, M., & Schneider, R. (in press). Effects of Transcendental Meditation Practice on Brain Functioning and Stress Reactivity in College Students. International Journal of Psychophysiology.

Travis, F., Haaga, D.H., Hagelin, J., Tanner, M., Arenander, A., Nidich, S., Gaylord-King, C., Grosswald, S., Rainforth, M., & Schneider, R. (in press). A Self-Referral Default Brain State: Patterns of Coherence, Power, and eLORETA Sources during Eyes-Closed Rest and the Transcendental Meditation Practice. Cognitive Processes.

Travis, F. and S. Brown, (2009). My Brain Made Me Do It: Brain Maturation and Levels of Self-Development, in The Postconventional Personality: Perspectives on Higher Development, A.H. Pfaffenberger, P.W. Marko, and T. Greening, Editors, Sage Publishing: New York.

Travis, F.T (2006). Are All Meditations the Same? Comparison of Brain Patterns, Benefits, and Descriptions of Mindfulness Meditation, Tibetan Buddhist Meditation and Transcendental Meditation. Towards a Science of Consciousness: Abstracts, 263, p. 181.

Travis, F.T. and Arenander, A. (2006). Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study of Effects of Transcendental Meditation Practice on Frontal Power Asymmetry and Frontal Coherence, International Journal of Neuroscience, 116(11): 1519-1538.

Hebert, R., Lehman, D., Tan, G., Travis, F., and Arenandar, A. (2005). Enhanced EEG alpha time-domain phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation: Implications for cortical implication theory. Signal Processing, 85(11), 2213-2232.

Travis, F.T., Arenander, A., DuBois, D. (2004). Psychological and physiological characteristics of a proposed object-referral / self-referral continuum of self-awareness. Consciousness and Cognition, 13/2, 401-420.

Travis, F. Patterns of EEG coherence, power, and contingent negative variation characterize the integration of transcendental and waking states. Biological Psychology 61: 293–319, 2002.

Gallois, P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L’Encéphale 10: 139–144, 1984.

Wallace, R.K. et al. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 79: 77–86, 1983.

Nidich, S.I. et al. Kohlbergian cosmic perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education 12: 166–173, 1983.

Orme-Johnson, D.W. and Haynes, C.T. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 13: 211–217, 1981.

Warshal, D. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on normal and Jendrassik reflex time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 50: 1103–1106, 1980.

McEvoy, T.M. et al. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience 10: 165–170, 1980.

Banquet, J.P. and Lesevre, N. Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness: Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain. Progress in Brain Research 54: 447–453, 1980.

Bennett, J.E. and Trinder, J. Hemispheric laterality and cognitive style associated with Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 14: 293–296, 1977.

Hebert, R. and D. Lehmann (1977). Theta Bursts: An EEG Pattern in Normal Subjects Practising the Transcendental Meditation Technique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 42(3): 397-405.

Creativity / Intelligence / Learning Ability

Dixon, C., Dillbeck, M.C., Travis, F., Msemaje, H., Clayborne, B.M., Dillbeck, S.L., and Alexander, C.H. (2005). Accelerating Cognitive and Self Development: Longitudinal Studies with Preschool and Elementary School Children. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17, 65-91.

So, K.T. and Orme-Johnson, D.W. Three randomized experiments on the longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 29: 419–440, 2001.

Cranson, R.W. et al. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105–1116, 1991.

Dixon, C.A. Consciousness and cognitive development: A six-month longitudinal study of four-year-olds practicing the children’s Transcendental Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts International 50(3): 1518B, 1989.

Warner, T.Q. Transcendental Meditation and developmental advancement: Mediating abilities and conservation performance. Dissertation Abstracts International 47(8): 3558B, 1987.

Jedrczak, A. et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief test of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42: 161–164, 1986.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive ability and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62: 731–738, 1986.

Jedrczak, A. et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, pure consciousness, creativity and intelligence. The Journal of Creative Behavior 19: 270–275, 1985.

Dillbeck, M.C. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem-solving. Memory & Cognition 10: 207–215, 1982.

Aron, A. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 15: 140–146, 1981.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151–157, 1981.

Travis, F. The Transcendental Meditation technique and creativity: A longitudinal study of Cornell University undergraduates. Journal of Creative Behavior 13: 169–180, 1979.

Shecter, H.W.  A psychological investigation into the source of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, 1978.

Tjoa, A. Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation program. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie 3: 167–182, 1975.

Educational Performance and Behavior

Barnes, V.A. et al. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1:10, 2003.

Nidich, S.I. and Nidich, R.J. Increased academic achievement at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment: A replication study. Education 109: 302–304, 1989.

Nidich, S.I. et al. School effectiveness: Achievement gains at the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment. Education 107: 49–54, 1986.

Kember, P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and postgraduate academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55: 164–166, 1985.

Schecter, H.W. A psychological investigation into the source of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, 1978.

Special and Remedial Education

Wood, M.F. The effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation as a means of improving the echolalic behavior of an autistic student. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Autism Research, Boston, Massachusetts, July 1981.

Eyerman, J. Transcendental Meditation and mental retardation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 42: 35–36, 1981McIntyre, M.E. et al. Transcendental Meditation and stuttering: A preliminary report. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 294 (Abstract), 1974.

Subrahmanyam, S. and Porkodi, K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73–88, 1980.

Allen, C.P. Effects of Transcendental Meditation, electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback relaxation, and conventional relaxation on vasoconstriction, muscle tension, and stuttering: A quantitative comparison. Dissertation Abstracts International 40(2): 689B, 1979.

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Schneider, R.H. et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in the treatment of hypertension in African Americans during one year. American Journal of Hypertension, 18(1): 88–98, 2005.

Barnes, V.A. et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 17: 366–369, 2004.

Walton, K.G. et al. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease, Part 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 28: 106–123, 2002.

Schneider, R.H. et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 26: 820–827, 1995.

Medical Care Utilization and Hospitalization

Orme-Johnson, D.W. and Herron, R.E. An innovative approach to reducing medical care utilization and expenditures. The American Journal of Managed Care 3: 135–144, 1997.

Herron, R.E. et al. The impact of the Transcendental Meditation program on government payments to physicians in Quebec. American Journal of Health Promotion 10: 208–216, 1996.

Haratani, T. and Hemmi, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the health behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Public Health 37 (10 Suppl.): 729, 1990.

Haratani, T. and Hemmi, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the mental health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health 32: 656, 1990.

Orme-Johnson, D.W. Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 493–507, 1987.

Anxiety and Stress

Alexander, C.N. et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: A prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6: 245–262, 1993.

Gaylord, C. et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscle relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 46: 77–86, 1989.

Eppley, K.R. et al. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 45: 957–974, 1989.

Brooks, J.S. and  Scarano, T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212–215, 1985.

Dillbeck, M.C. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology 33: 1076–1078, 1977.

Candelent, T. and Candelent, G. Teaching Transcendental Meditation in a psychiatric setting. Hospital & Community Psychiatry 26: 156–159, 1975.

Orme-Johnson, D.W. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 35: 341–349, 1973.

Aging and Longevity

Schneider, R.H. et al. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons > 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 95: 1060-1064, 2005.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 950–964, 1989.

Wallace, R.K. et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 53–58, 1982.

Self-Actualization and Integration of Personality

Alexander, C.N. et al. Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: 189–247, 1991.

Gelderloos, P. Field independence of students at Maharishi School and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613–614, 1987.

Gelderloos, P. Cognitive orientation toward positive values in advanced participants of the TM and TM-Sidhi program. Perceptual and Motor Skills 64: 1003–1012, 1987.

Holt, W.R. et al. Transcendental Meditation vs. pseudo-meditation on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46: 726, 1978.

Pelletier, K.R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 1031–1034, 1974.

Frew, D.R. Transcendental Meditation and productivity. Academy of Management Journal 17: 362–368, 1974.

Appelle, S. and Oswald, L.E. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38: 1263–1268, 1974.

Nidich, S. et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation: A replication. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20: 565–566, 1973.

Seeman, W. et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology 19: 184–187, 1972.

Substance Abuse

Alexander, C.N. et al. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13–87, 1994.

Aron, E.N. and Aron, A. The patterns of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2: 28–33, 1983.

Monahan, R.J. Secondary prevention of drug dependence through the Transcendental Meditation program in metropolitan Philadelphia. The International Journal of the Addictions 12: 729–754, 1977.

Shafii, M. et al. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 132: 942–945, 1975.

Shafii, M. et al. Meditation and marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry 131: 60–63, 1974.

Wallace, R.K. et al. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A study of 1,862 subjects. In Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference, ed. Chris J.D. Zarafonetis (Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger): 369–376, 1972.

Criminal Rehabilitation

Alexander, C.N. et al. Transcendental Meditation in criminal rehabilitation and crime prevention. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36 (1/2/3/4): 2003.

Bleick, C.R. and Abrams, A.I. The Transcendental Meditation program and criminal recidivism in California. Journal of Criminal Justice 15: 211–230, 1987.

Abrams, A.I. and Siegel, L.M. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: A cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior 5: 3–20, 1978.

Social and Economic Applications

Orme-Johnson, D.W., et al. Preventing terrorism and international conflict: Effects of large assemblies of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36: 283–302, 2003.

Hagelin, J.S. et al. Effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on preventing violent crime in Washington, DC: Results of the National Demonstration Project, June–July 1993. Social Indicators Research 47: 153–201, 1999.

Hatchard, G.D. et al. A model for social improvement. Time series analysis of a phase transition to reduced crime in Merseyside metropolitan area. Psychology, Crime, and Law 2: 165–174, 1996.

Dillbeck, M.C. and Rainforth, M.V. Impact assessment analysis of behavioral quality of life indices: Effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 38–43, 1996.

Assimakis, P.D. and Dillbeck, M.C. Time series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: Social change, collective consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program. Psychological Reports 76: 1171–1193, 1995.

Gelderloos, P. et al. The dynamics of US–Soviet relations, 1979–1986: Effects of reducing social stress through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 297–302, 1990.

Dillbeck, M.C. Test of a field theory of consciousness and social change: Time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi program and reduction of violent death in the U.S. Social Indicators Research 22: 399–418, 1990.

Davies, J.L. Alleviating political violence through enhancing coherence in collective consciousness. Dissertation Abstracts International 49(8): 2381A, 1989.

Orme-Johnson, D.W. et al. International peace project in the Middle East: The effect of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. Journal of Conflict Resolution 32: 776–812, 1988.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Test of a field model of consciousness and social change: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and decreased urban crime. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 9: 457–486, 1988

Cavanaugh, K.L. and King, K.D. Simultaneous transfer function analysis of Okun’s misery index: Improvements in the economic quality of life through Maharishi’s Vedic Science and technology of consciousness. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 491–496, 1988.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Consciousness as a field: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and changes in social indicators. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 8: 67–104, 1987.

Cavanaugh, K.L. Time series analysis of U.S. and Canadian inflation and unemployment: A test of a field-theoretic hypothesis. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 799–804, 1987.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change in a sample of forty-eight cities. Journal of Crime and Justice 4: 25–45, 1981.

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~ by 619 on March 17, 2010.

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